French-Mexican Declaration for Effective Multilateralism (19 December 2019)


We, the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of the French Republic and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of United Mexican States, have decided to conclude an agenda for effective multilateralism in order to defend, strengthen and adapt a multilateral order based on the rule of law, democracy and international cooperation at grassroots level.


CONSIDERING the friendship and cooperation ties between France and Mexico, and the community of values that exists between our two democracies which are constitutionally committed to human rights, the protection of the environment and social progress,

CONVINCED of their many convergences regarding the main global challenges, achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Programme and defending an international order based on law, which works for peace and global prosperity,

REAFFIRMING their commitment to multilateralism, of which the United Nations represents a key element, as the best possible response to the multiplying risks and shared challenges,

SUPPORTING the efforts made by the UN Secretary-General to reform this universal organization, and wishing to work together to make it even more effective and responsive to global challenges,

ENCOURAGING the innovative multi-stakeholder initiatives for sustainable peace, bolstering global governance and international cooperation, particularly through the Paris Peace Forum,

REITERATING their commitment within the Alliance for Multilateralism, a coalition open to countries of goodwill wishing to defend, strengthen and adapt a multilateral system based on international law, co-sponsored by Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Ghana, Mexico and Singapore in New York on 26 September 2019,

REFERRING to the approximately 100 cooperation agreements concluded between the two countries, but also the Economic, Political Coordination and Cooperation Partnership Agreement between the European Community and its Member States and the United Mexican States (“Comprehensive Agreement”),

1. We, the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of the French Republic and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the United Mexican States, have decided to conclude an agenda for effective multilateralism in order to defend, strengthen and adapt a multilateral order based on the rule of law, democracy and international cooperation at grassroots level.

Through their respective diplomacy, France and Mexico commit to promoting a strong multilateral response to the most pressing global issues including, in particular, the following challenges: (i) the environment and the climate, (ii) technology and cyber security, (iii) international peace and security, (iv) human rights and gender equality, (v) the economy and trade.

2. As regards environmental and climate-related challenges, France and Mexico reaffirm their desire to fight together against climate change, biodiversity loss, and ocean pollution.

They reaffirm the irreversibility of the Paris Agreement on the climate and welcome the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the land, seas and global warming of 1.5°C, whose scientific conclusions are extremely worrying. They commit to applying all aspects of the Paris Agreement and making progress towards more ambitious climate mitigation and adaptation objectives before 2050, by unveiling more ambitious climate policies in 2020. They underline the importance of starting as soon as possible the energy transition, the reorientation of public and private financial flows and providing social support for the transformations required to fight climate change. Desiring to contribute to the resilience and adaptation to climate change of the Caribbean islands, they support the Caribbean Programme for Sargassum and the Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative.

Aware of the particularly negative climate impact of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, they reiterate their full commitment to the Biarritz Pledge for Fast Action on Efficient Cooling. The success obtained with the implementation of the Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is an exceptional example of international cooperation and the benefits of multilateralism for facing global environmental challenges.

Within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, they will contribute to the Sharm El-Sheikh to Kunming Action Agenda for Nature and People, including at the World Conservation Congress in June 2020, in Marseille, and the definition and effective implementation of an ambitious global post-2020 framework for biodiversity conservation. They will contribute to the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of ecosystems and marine and land resources, particularly ahead of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030. They will remain fully committed to the discussions on a Global Pact for the Environment aimed at strengthening international environment law.

3. Regarding technological and cyber security challenges, France and Mexico highlight the new opportunities offered by fast technological change, such as 5G, Artificial Intelligence and robotics, and recognize the risks and threats that malicious and criminal use of these technologies may pose. They therefore call upon the international community to give this issue their full attention in order to provide effective responses.

France and Mexico welcome the report of the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation and reiterate their full support for the Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace, in order to protect the accessibility, stability and integrity of cyber space, prevent malicious events online and guarantee the effectiveness of international law in cyber space. They defend and affirm the applicability of international law to cyber space and promote, particularly in the framework of the United Nations, responsible behaviour in cyber space by public and private stakeholders.

The two countries will continue to collaborate on the theme of new technologies and their impact on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals within the framework of the United Nations Group of Friends on Digital Technologies. They will support the launch of a Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence, particularly within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Commemorating the victims of terrorist attacks and premeditated hate crimes through malicious use of the Internet, they also reiterate their full commitment to the Christchurch Call to remove violent extremist content online. France and Mexico are observing with great concern the global dissemination of hate speech which stresses the differences between individuals or groups based on race, religious beliefs, nationality, ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation and other factors. An example of this is the tragedy of 3 August 2019 in El Paso, Texas which cost 22 individuals their lives, including 8 Mexicans. The two countries express their support for the values of tolerance and respect between individuals of all nations and denounce any hate speech, xenophobic manifestations and extremist ideologies.

4. Regarding the international peace and security challenges, France and Mexico underline the pressing need to ensure compliance with international law and the promotion of a sustainable peace, in a global context marked by unilateral visions and a growing number of threats and conflicts.

France and Mexico will work to effectively keep international peace and security, including through regular discussions on issues of mutual interest on the United Nations Security Council’s agenda, and discussions on its reform. They will continue to promote in the United Nations their joint initiative to suspend the right to veto of permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in the event of mass atrocities, which has 104 signatory countries.

In support of Action for Peacekeeping (A4P), the two countries will continue to work on strengthening the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations of the United Nations. They will consolidate their contributions to peacekeeping operations, particularly through the deployment of blue helmets including in French-speaking countries, and the development of the Mexican Joint Training Center for Peace Operations (CECOPAM).

They reiterate their full adherence to Call for Humanitarian Action for the effective implementation of international humanitarian law, regarding the protection of humanitarian workers and health workers.

They reiterate their commitment to the effective implementation of the Arms Trade Treaty and the United Nations Programme of Action with a view to preventing, combating and eradicating every aspect of illicit trade in light weapons and highlight existing synergies between instruments relating to the trafficking of small arms and light weapons and their diversion to non-authorized parties.

In addition, the two countries reaffirm their unconditional commitment to contributing to a successful Tenth Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for the full implementation of this international instrument. They reaffirm the validity of delivering on commitments and obligations under the NPT, a keystone of the international non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament regime.

5. Regarding human rights and gender equality challenges, France and Mexico underline the importance of protecting and promoting human rights and fundamental freedoms, fully taking into consideration gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.

Recognizing the ongoing challenges in each of their countries, France and Mexico will continue to defend the role of multilateral institutions in protecting and promoting human rights and international criminal justice system. They will tirelessly renew their efforts to achieve the universal abolition of the death penalty. They reaffirm their commitment to the promotion and protection of human rights including of migrants and people under international protection, and reiterate their full adherence to the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration and the Global Compact on Refugees.

France and Mexico are jointly holding the Generation Equality Forum with the aim of decisively and tangibly promoting the commitments enshrined in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, in partnership with civil society and the feminist movement, by 2030 at the latest. Convinced of the importance of gender equality education, they reiterate their full adherence to the Gender at the Centre Initiative, as well as its commitment to ensuring the access of girls and women to quality education, including in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics and to promoting the continuation of their studies until secondary level and higher education. Also, they will take the necessary measures to ensure women’s economic empowerment, through their incorporation into the labour market by promoting national policies regarding healthcare, social protection and the distribution of household tasks enabling them to balance their family life with their paid work. They will continue to promote women’s substantial participation at all levels in decision making. Recognizing their vital role in conflict prevention and resolution, they will continue to promote the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. They will pursue their efforts in fighting all forms of violence against women and girls, including femicide, through the European Union and United Nations Spotlight Initiative. They reaffirm the right of all women to have complete control over their sexuality, access to modern and safe family planning methods and freedom to make their own decisions regarding their body. They will work to foster access of all girls and women to comprehensive sex education and to guarantee their sexual and reproductive rights and health, in line with commitments taken under the Cairo Programme of Action at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women.

6. Regarding economic and trade challenges, France and Mexico recommend improving international economic governance and underline their commitment to open multilateral trade based on fair competition rules that are able to mitigate the negative social and environmental externalities of globalization.
France and Mexico subscribe to the need for a reform of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to strengthen its effectiveness and its authority, and enable it to fight unilateral customs measures, extraterritorial sanctions aiming at thwart trade with third countries and support the fight against climate change and the erosion of biodiversity. Within the WTO, France, via the European Union, and Mexico will seek to obtain the prohibition of subsidies that contribute to overfishing and illegal fishing. Both countries support the G20 as the leading international economic cooperation forum, and its activities to encourage an open global economy. They closely cooperate within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to promote sustainable long-term economic growth and to improve the standard of living of their populations. They intend to continue to actively promote the process to reform the international monetary and financial system. They will ensure that their commercial diversification strategies are compatible with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on the climate, especially with a view to the future modernization of the Comprehensive Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, on the one hand, and the United Mexican States, on the other.

7. Regarding challenges related to the preservation of cultural heritage of the peoples, France and Mexico recognize that illegal trafficking of antiquities is one of the causes of the depletion of cultural heritage of countries of origin of these items. Both countries also agree that it is a global phenomenon that in recent decades has reached unprecedented proportions, which require coordinated efforts in all relevant multilateral forums and bodies.

Through multilateral dialogue and reflection, they intend to generate more solid political and operational elements in order to reverse current trends of the global market of art and antiquities. They reiterate their efforts within international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), through the implementation of the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, of which UNESCO is a depositary.

8. We, the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of the French Republic and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the United Mexican States, have agreed to maintain high-level political dialogue in order to implement and develop, through new joint initiatives, the Alliance for Multilateralism, which was jointly sponsored by our two countries on 26 September 2019 in New York. At the same time, we will continue to promote this Alliance alongside our other strategic partners, to together defend, strengthen and adapt an international order based on law and which guarantees global peace and prosperity.

In Mexico, on 19 December 2019


Minister for Europe
and Foreign Affairs
of the French Republic


Secretary of Foreign Affairs
of the United Mexican States