Ensure sustainable development (OMD7)
French aid makes a significant contribution to MDG 7 in each of its target actions. Several programmes aim to introduce principles of sustainable development into national policies (notably with regards to French Global Environment Facility - FFEM) and to contribute to reducing insalubrious housing (financing in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia). A significant share of French aid is naturally dedicated to the water and water treatment question (target 10).
Target 9: integrate the principles of sustainable development into national policies and programmes and reverse the depletion of environmental resources.
French Cooperation initiatives are based on three complementary sectors of intervention:
· institutional support for higher awareness of the problems at hand, deployment of adapted policies and projects, strengthening of scientific and technical expertise (40% of the Development Aid engaged). This is a role which is naturally played in priority by France in the Priority Solidarity Zone on the basis of our technical assistance network backed up by our scientific research targeted at these countries. Insertion of the environment as a priority element in country strategies, through this financing, remains limited however.
· aid in the design and deployment of policies promoting sustainable management of resources (forestry, fishing, rural development) (28%), in response to strong demand from the countries concerned.
· specific initiatives aimed at environmental conservation (protected areas) and preservation (energy efficiency and renewable energies) (32%).
The global volume of our aid dedicated to the environment has reduced slightly over the past three years. It currently stands at approximately 180 M€/year, or a total of 3% of French development aid, 130 M€ of this is dedicated to bilateral aid which places us on the 3rd rank in the OECD, the remaining 50 M€ is multilateral aid. This is mainly represented by our contribution to the Global Environment Fund (GEF). This aid is allocated to the amount of 50% to biodiversity, 20% in fighting against global warming and 20% in initiatives against desertification. The remaining 10% are used for initiatives promoting improved environmental governance, deploying the Stockholm protocol, etc.
In terms of geographic representation, French bilateral aid is mainly concentrated on the Priority Solidarity Zones (80%) and notably on Africa. Actions relative to biodiversity are mainly carried out in Africa while emerging countries are the target for climate related initiatives.
French cooperation in tropical Africa’s humid zones is directed towards forestry preservation by means of rational and sustainable valorisation of its natural resources. This strategy is based on three elements: · institutional support on a regional and national level: definition and deployment of national forestry policies and support for regional structures; · forestry management on the basis of the principles of sustainable management methods applied to industrial exploitations; this type of intervention has, over the past ten years, enabled sustainable management methods to be applied to some 6 million hectares of forests in the Congo basin. · valorisation of forestry research and support for training and skills transfer. The FFEM meets the costs relative to managing the biodiversity in various land use projects: inventory of the fauna or flora, impact studies, evaluation and management plans for the fauna within the framework of land development, consumption of game on managed forestry zones.
Partnership for the forests in the Congo basin: within the Priority Solidarity Zone the zone of concentration of aid is defined as the Congo basin. France has undertaken to contribute 15 M€ over the 2003-2005 period towards institutional support and capacity building (this corresponds to various PSF projects). In addition, the FFEM will also contribute 5 M€ with an additional 30 M€ potentially proposed by the FDA in the form of loans to support forestry development projects. The first coordination meeting for this partnership took place in Paris from 21st to 23rd January 2003.
The national tropical forests working group: this group is dedicated to bringing together all the public and private stakeholders: ministerial departments (Foreign Affairs, Ecology and Sustainable Development, Agriculture, Finance), other public agencies (National Forestry Office, FDA, FFEM), research institutes (CIRAD, IRD, CNRS, INRA, Natural History Museum...), local authorities, professional companies and bodies (exploitation, transformation, trading, sale/distribution), environmental and development NGOs, forestry certification systems... Its aim is to lead analysis of the French international policy with regards to wet tropical forestry management. It has a further aim of drawing up a white paper on French policy with regards to wet tropical forestry management.
Fight against desertification and soil deterioration
Desertification is at the heart of questions relative to climate change, preservation of biodiversity, water resource management and also the fight against poverty and for food security. In countries affected by desertification, notably the Maghreb and Sahel regions, French cooperation aims to promote projects which combat this major problem through three main themes: agro-ecology and the fight against soil deterioration, managing wooded areas and concerted management of agro-pastoral resources. With regards to agro-ecology, a programme was launched aimed at transferring and adapting in 5 Priority Solidarity Zones (Laos, Tunisia, Madagascar, Mali and Cameroon) techniques mastered for very large scale operations (tens of millions of hectares), notably in South America. Technical solutions were found, including using cultivation systems which require little or no input factors, which means that the poorest poor are not excluded. This major change in the soil-plant-systems relation of cultivation requires efforts in training farmers and technicians and must be taken into account within the framework of the evolution of agrarian systems in these rural zones: land availability problems, adoption of the required techniques, access to input factors, markets and selling, training...
The French Global Environment Facility
The French Global Environment Facility (FFEM) was established in 1994 to promote global environmental protection in developing countries and countries in transition phases. It represents a French bilateral instrument which adds to the multilateral mechanism represented by the GEF.The sectors of intervention for the FFEM are protection of biodiversity, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions within the framework of fighting against global warming, protection of international water resources and, since 2002, protection against the deterioration of soils and from long term organic pollutants. The FFEM acts in support of economic and social development projects which may have an impact in terms of the global environment in developing countries or countries in transition phases, notably in Priority Solidarity Zones; its procedure is based on a pedagogical approach and support of innovative or exemplary projects; it represents an additional tool in the French external aid system; it acts as a minority funding partner; it acts at the request of and under the responsibility of one o its five institutional partners (Ministries of Finance, Foreign Affaires, Ecology Research and also the FDA).
Over the 1991-2002 period, France’s participation to the FFEM amounted to 134 M€. It was renewed in 2003 for a further 4 year period and again for an annual amount of 67 M€. The long term nature of this financial engagement, which tops up an annual contribution of 41 M€ to the GEF, underlines the considerable importance that France places on the environment. The resources dedicated to the FFEM are in addition to French external aid and in addition to the French contribution to the GEF.In total, between 1994 and 2002, the FFEM has begun or completed the deployment of some 106 projects. This represents a potential capacity of financial engagement of 115.66 M€. 26% were directed at greenhouse effect questions, 43% on biodiversity, 16% combined (forestry, greenhouse effect, biodiversity) and 15% on international water resources. 43% of the projects took place in Africa. Out of the 106 projects, 94 have been evaluated and initiated for a total engagement of 95.45 M€.
Targets 10 and 11: Access to water / Improvement of living conditions of inhabitants of slum areas
Over recent years water has become a major theme in the global debate on sustainable development. Water deficits, related to a reduction in availability in the light of growing demand, mainly affects southern hemisphere countries. The global water crisis is especially marked in Africa given the forecast demographic explosion (+50% over the next 15 years) and also the powerful movement of urban concentration.
France’s political engagements
The French engagements in the sector of water management are numerous. These were further strengthened at the last world summit in sustainable development which took place during the G8 summit at Evian in June 2003, when the President of the French Republic announced that French aid with regards to water management in Africa would be doubled. The G8 countries at Evian adopted a water action plan aimed at promoting the MDG and the Johannesburg undertakings within the framework of the NEPAD. This action plan encourages good governance, mobilising and coordinating all available financial resources and the creation of supply infrastructures and water treatment facilities on the basis of support from duly informed and trained local communities and authorities, greater levels of management support, evaluation of results and also research activities.
France notably welcomes the publication of the report issued by the global panel on the financing of water infrastructures, Presided by Mr.Michel CAMDESSUS, underlining the fact that this report represents a key step forward in the international community meeting its undertakings towards the realisation of the MDGs. Indeed, it offers a detailed analysis of the various methods of governance and financing applicable to the water sector. Finally, France strongly supports the proposal put forward by the President of the European Commission to create a Water Facility financed by the GEF. France also supports the initiative related to water supply and water treatment in rural environments put forward by the African Development Bank in close coordination with the NEPAD. This initiative targets providing access to water for 66% of African rural populations by 2010.
France’s financial undertakings
France has established bilateral and regional projects relative to institutional support in the following sectors: water and food security; water related research to the annual amount of approximately 15 M€. These bilateral instruments and the strengthening of human resources capacities have enabled the creation of an institutional environment which is positive with regards to the questions of water management: national policies, water codes, water basin agencies, municipal services and delegated management of water networks, agricultural water user committees. Such tools enable the support of a certain number of international operators including the World Conservation Union (UICN), the Global Water Partnership (GWP), the Water Solidarity Network (PSEAU), the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), the International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID), the Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (WSP) which all contribute in their various fields of competence towards promoting water and water treatment quality, thus ensuring France’s and the French speaking countries’ presence in this sector within several multilateral sectors.
The annual amount (average 2001 - 2003) of engagements of French bilateral aid in the water sector, covering all types of aid (including that towards irrigation and pastoral hydraulics) amounts to 268 million Euros (of which 166 million Euros was dedicated to Africa). French bilateral aid through the Development Agency with regards to water was in the main dedicated to the question of potable water and water treatment (62% or 165.4 million Euros in the world and 107. 6 million Euros in Africa). The share for integrated management of water resources - GIRE - was 25% and that of irrigation and pastoral hydraulics13 %.
A certain number of Priority Solidarity Fund Projects are under examination for an amount of approximately 17 M€. France also contributes, via the secondment of an expert in fiduciary funds, to the World Bank actions (notably in Africa) and the Stockholm Global Water Partnership actions. It pilots the "Integrated management of water resources" committee under the European initiative launched at the global summit on sustainable development in Johannesburg. France contributes significant support towards training in water related professions in Africa (creation of training centres and support for the inter-State group of schools for hydraulics and rural infrastructures through the EIER-ETSHER International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering).
French cooperation supports numerous initiatives led by international solidarity organisations and also those led by local authorities to the amount of 8 M€, of which 2.5 M€ is dedicated to partnerships with local authorities. The share dedicated to Africa in the water sector currently amounts to some 60%.
Providing drinking water supplies to urban and semi-urban areas in Nioro and Diema in Mali (Target 10 of MDG 7)
The institutional deployment of this project is based on the decentralisation process which is currently being applied in Mali and also on the national water policy, defined in collaboration between national structures (State, communes, user associations) and the main financial partners in the sector (AFD and its German counterpart, KFW). This deployment promotes an ‘on demand’ approach. State skills are transferred to the commune as requested and needed. In terms of public water services, the State retains a role of regulator while the management of public water services is delegated to a private company or a users’ association. Income from the sale of water ensures the long term survival of the system (remuneration of the operator, operating expenses and renewal of equipment and infrastructure). Maintenance of equipment and infrastructure is carried out by a private specialist under contract with the operator, i.e. the private entity or user’s association. The technical and financial support unit, as a private entity, provides expert advice in proximity to the users’ associations and water managers. The project concerns 21 semi-urban centres (from 2 000 to 10 000 inhabitants) not served by the national system. Material expenditure to be financed is as follows: 24 wells equipped with electric generators; 21 reservoirs: 5 of 50m3 and 16 of 25 m3; and 92 outlet-terminals. 76 000 persons are concerned by the projects, they have contributed to financing the projects to the amount of 1€ per person (or 7.5€ per household), which represents nearly 1% of the cost of the project.
Improving access to drinking water in the Lebanon (Targets 10 and 11 of MDG 7)
France is active in the sector of water distribution and treatment in the Lebanon, contributing mainly to financing infrastructures and supporting institutional evolution in the sector. Part of this action is aimed at accompanying the Lebanese government, notably the Ministry for Energy and Water, towards modernising its legislative framework (a water code and laws of enforcement) and also in assisting with defining and deploying its missions (definition of a water policy, overseeing agencies and technical regulation) by means of adapted training and support actions. Another element concerns contributing towards the water distribution and treatment programme for the North Lebanon Water Establishment (EELN) whose specific objectives are (i) the improvement of drinking water supply to populations not currently served in north Lebanon, (ii) the improvement of water treatment services in conurbations in north Lebanon and (iii) institutional evolution of the sector towards a greater operational efficacy within the EELN, greater levels of contribution from the private sector and rationalisation of the joint management of two sub-sectors. With regards to the water treatment element more specifically, France is co-financing a sewage treatment unit in the Koura area and the 3 sewage collection networks in the cantons of Koura, Chekka and Batroun. It is thus contributing to ensuring that a greater proportion of the population has access to an improved water treatment system (Target 11 of MDG 7).
Reducing the levels of insalubrious housing in Algeria (Target 11 of MDG 7)
A national programme to reduce the levels of insalubrious housing in Algeria has been launched aimed at progressively renovating 600 sites identified throughout the country. These sites represent some 17 000 hectares and 3.5 million inhabitants. The project is based on spontaneous renovation of housing, restructuring deteriorated districts and developing economic housing projects. It is financed by the World Bank and the AFD. The financing concerns operations to restructure districts in some fifteen wilayas, including civil engineering works: roads, drainage, sewage, water distribution and electricity networks, public lighting, urban planning for public areas - notably green areas. This project aims to significantly improve the living conditions for 15000 to 20000 households in degraded districts throughout the national territory. The improvement is both applicable to the healthcare situation and the environment, travelling and a access to employment, security and leisure and must in priority benefit women and children.