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Fight against malaria

Today, malaria concerns 40% of the world’s population living in transmission areas (inter-tropical zones) and affects 109 countries (45 of which are in Africa: they account for 91% of deaths). Children under five years of age and pregnant women are particularly concerned.

Background

There are 300 million attacks of malaria per year, 1 million deaths (primarily children under five years of age), 90% of which are in Africa; but Asia and Latin America are also affected. Every 30 seconds, a child dies of malaria in Africa.

This situation has a major economic impact, assessed at 1.3% less annual growth in countries hit the hardest. It costs 12 billion dollars in GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa annually.

Funding allocated to the fight against malaria

Yet, for the first time, the international community is planning to control this blight: it is probably the only health MDG (Millennium Development Goal) that seems accessible by 2015.

In ten years, the budgets allocated have been multiplied by 20, increasing from 64 million in 1998 to 1.1 billion dollars in 2009. The Global Fund accounts for 2/3 of international funding. However, this funding is still not enough. In order to fight malaria effectively, needs have been estimated to be 5.3 billion dollars for 2009.

Resources for fighting malaria

To date, the fight against malaria emphasizes treatment (ACT: artemisinin-based drug combination) and vector-control measures, including the provision of impregnated mosquito nets, even long-lasting impregnated bed nets, as well as educating the populations. In 2008, the partners of Roll Back Malaria distributed nearly 60 million mosquito nets in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2009, 240 million mosquito nets were distributed. According to the global malaria control plan, 250 to 300 million more mosquito nets would be required to cover the at-risk population in Africa.

Created in 2007 by Roll Back Malaria, the AMFm (Affordable Medicines Facility for Malaria) is a system that enables patients to get ACT treatments at the same price as previous malaria treatments, thanks to a subsidy system. In January 2009, the IDPF Board of Directors adopted a resolution granting 130 million dollars to the Global Fund for the first phase of the system (2009-2011). The AMFm was launched officially on 17 April 2009 in Oslo and is expected to commit about 225 million dollars.

Mobilization of France in the fight against malaria

France has been devoting more and more resources to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis (GFFAMT) since 2002: 50 million euros in 2002 and 2003, 150 million in 2004 and 2005, 225 million in 2006, 300 million in 2007 and 300 million a year from 2008 to 2010). France is the second-leading funder of the Global Fund after the United States, and is the leading European contributor. It contributes 13% of all funds allocated to the GFFAMT.

France is also the IDPF’s leading lender, with 67% of its financing. In 2007, the IDPF funded 27 million malaria treatments, for nearly 50 million dollars. In a joint action conducted in partnership with UNICEF and the Global Fund, in 2008, the IDPF gave UNICEF more than 14 million dollars to purchase 8 million ACT (ACT: artemisinin-based drug combination) treatments for eight countries in Africa and Asia [1]. In partnership with UNICEF and the Global Fund, the IDPF aims to treat 54.5 million cases of malaria attacks by 2010-2011.

France participates in and supports the Roll Back Malaria partnership, to which it granted 300,000 euros in 2008; this grant was renewed in 2009 and 2010. France also provides technical support to the WHO to build capacities in countries to fight malaria: the share of this technical support accounts for about 300,000 euros a year.

In addition, France contributes to malaria training and research actions through various French partners (the IRD, Institut Pasteur and universities) and in the framework of European financing, mobilizing more than 15 million euros annually in terms of ODA (official development assistance). These partnerships in the field of research are crucial: in particular, several approaches to developing a malaria vaccine are underway. However, none of them will be available for many years.

Overall, from 1998 to 2007, France contributed a combined total of 437 million euros to the fight against malaria. Efforts have been stepped up significantly in recent years, with contributions increasing from about 300,000 euros in 2000 to 177 million euros in 2007. In 2008, this contribution accounted for 16% of the international efforts to control the disease, totalling approximately 200 million euros. Since 2004, France has been the world’s second-leading contributor to the international fight against malaria.

Updated on 09.04.10

[1] Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sudan and Zambia


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